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Utshintsho olukhulu lwenzekile kwipateni yobonelelo ngeenkozo zehlabathi kunye nemfuno

Imeko yokhuseleko lokutya kwihlabathi iya isiba nzima kwaye inzima, kwaye ummandla wokhuseleko lokutya uphantsi kotshintsho olukhulu.

Ukusetyenziswa kokutya okukhulu yi-bioenergy sesona sizathu sokutshintsha kobonelelo lokutya lwehlabathi kunye nepateni yemfuno.Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, amaxabiso e-oyile aphezulu akhuthaze uphuhliso olukhawulezileyo lwe-bioenergy, anyuse kakhulu imfuno yezinto ezinje ngombona, iswekile, i-rapeseed kunye neembotyi zesoya, kwaye atshintsha imeko yexesha elide yentsalela yokutya.Ngokwezibalo, ukusetyenziswa kombona kwihlabathi lonke kunyuke nge-3.3% ngonyaka kule minyaka mihlanu idlulileyo, apho umbona otyiwa yi-fuel ethanol ubalelwa ngaphezulu kwe-70%.I-United States yaqala ukuphuhlisa i-bioenergy ngomlinganiselo omkhulu ngo-2002. Ngo-2010, ukusetyenziswa kwayo kwe-ethanol ye-fuel ethanol yafikelela kwi-128 yezigidi zeetoni, ilingana ne-41% yemveliso yombona e-United States kunye ne-25% yemveliso yombona yehlabathi.Kwangaxeshanye, i-50% yemveliso yeswekile yaseBrazil isetyenziselwa ukuvelisa i-ethanol yamafutha, i-20% yeoli yesoya yehlabathi, i-30% yeoli yesundu kuMzantsi-mpuma Asia, i-20% ye-oyile yokudlwengulwa yehlabathi kunye ne-65% ye-oyile ye-rapeseed ye-EU. zisetyenziselwa imveliso ye-biodiesel, eye yandisa ukuguquguquka kwentengiso yeswekile yehlabathi kunye nemifuno yeoli.Ngaphandle kombona osetyenziswe yi-ethanol yamafutha, umyinge wokukhula wonyaka wokusetyenziswa kweenkozo zehlabathi kuphela yi-1.1%, engaphantsi kancinane kwinqanaba lokukhula kwabemi be-1.2% ngexesha elifanayo.Ubonelelo lokutya kwihlabathi jikelele kunye nemfuno yemeko ngengazange ibe maxongo kangako.

Ukongeza, ukukhula okukhawulezayo koqoqosho lwamazwe asakhasayo kunye nophuculo oluqhubekayo lolwakhiwo lokusetyenziswa kukhuthaze ukukhula okuqhubekayo kwemfuno yokutya, kwaye ngokuthe ngcembe kwatshintsha ipateni yobonelelo lokutya kwihlabathi kunye nemfuno.Ngokomzekelo, iIndiya iye yaba lelona lizwe lithenga kumazwe angaphandle ioli yesundu neswekile.

Ukutshintsha kwemozulu kunye nemozulu embi ethe gqolo iye yachaphazela ngokuthe ngqo ukufumaneka kokutya okusebenzayo kwehlabathi.Okwangoku, imveliso yokutya okuziinkozo yehlabathi igxile ikakhulu kwiindawo ezinabantu abambalwa kunye nomhlaba othe kratya kunye nemithombo yobutyebi yezolimo etyebileyo, efana noMntla noMzantsi Melika, othatha i-26.2% yemveliso yokutya okuziinkozo iyonke yehlabathi, kunye ne-55% yemveliso yengqolowa yehlabathi. ukusuka kule mimandla mibini.Nangona kunjalo, ukubonelelwa kokutya e-Asiya nase-Afrika kuye kwaxina iminyaka emininzi, kwaye ukutya okwenziwa minyaka le kumazwe angaphandle kuyalingana ne-70% yexabiso lehlabathi lilonke.Phantsi kwemvelaphi yokufudumala kwehlabathi kunye neentlekele zendalo ezihlala rhoqo, ukunikezelwa kokutya okutsha kwehlabathi kunye nokuthunyelwa kwamanye amazwe kugxininisekile kumazwe ambalwa, kwaye ukubonelela ngokutya kwehlabathi kunye nenkqubo yamaxabiso inkenenkene.Ngokukodwa, nayiphi na imozulu embi kumazwe avelisa ukutya amakhulu iya kukhokelela ekuguquguqukeni okukhulu kwimveliso yokutya, okungayi kuba nempembelelo enkulu kuphela kwimarike yokutya yehlabathi, kodwa kuchaphazele ngokuthe ngqo ukhuseleko lokutya kumazwe anqongopheleyo.

Emva kobunzima bezemali bamazwe ngamazwe, i-United States kunye namanye amazwe amkele umgaqo-nkqubo wezemali oxekethileyo ukwandisa umngcipheko wokunyuka kwamaxabiso ehlabathi, nto leyo ekwangumba obalulekileyo okhokelela ekunyukeni kabukhali kwamaxabiso okutya ehlabathi.Ukongeza, ngokunyuka kwendlela "yamandla" kunye "nemali" yokutya okuziinkozo, indlela yokunxibelelana phakathi kwexabiso lengqolowa kunye nexabiso le-oyile ibonakala ngakumbi, ehambelana ngokusondeleyo nokuhla kwezinga lokutshintshiselana kwedola yaseMelika, evelele ngakumbi phantsi kweempembelelo. yentelekelelo yemali eyinkunzi, kunye nokuhla kwexabiso lokuziinkozo kurhwebo lwamazwe ngamazwe kuya kuba nzulu ngakumbi.Njengoko kubonisiwe ngamagosa e-WFP, ukunyuka kwamaxabiso okutya kubangele "i-tsunami ethuleyo", engazange ichaphazele ngokuthe ngqo ubomi babantu abaphantse babe yi-100 yezigidi kunye neengxaki zokutya zabantu abangaphezu kwe-1 yezigidigidi emhlabeni jikelele, kodwa inokukhokelela ekubeni abantu baphile ngonaphakade. Ingxaki enkulu yezopolitiko kwaye isongela uphuhliso loqoqosho kunye nozinzo lwentlalo yamazwe asakhulayo.

Ukutyhubela iminyaka, ngenxa yenkxaso-mali eninzi yezolimo kumazwe athuthukileyo, imarike yemveliso yezolimo yamazwe ngamazwe iye yagqwetheka kakhulu, nto leyo eyenza ukuba amazwe amaninzi asakhasayo athembele kakhulu kukutya okunexabiso eliphantsi okunikezelwa ngamazwe aphuhlileyo, enze iimpazamo ezinzulu kubuchule bophuhliso lwezolimo. kunye nokungahoyi utyalo-mali kuphuhliso lwezolimo, okukhokelela ekwehleni kwemveliso yezolimo kunye nokusilela ukusombulula ingxaki yokhuseleko lokutya.Nje ukuba imveliso yokutya yamazwe aphambili avelisayo ihlile kwaye nokuhla kwamaxabiso okutya kwihlabathi jikelele kwenzeka, amazwe asaphuhlayo anqongopheleyo ekutyeni aya kuwela kwintlekele enkulu kunye nendlala.Izifundo zembali zinzulu.Amazwe asakhasayo kufuneka aqhoboshele ukubaluleka okukhulu kwimveliso yokutya, adlale indima yomgaqo-nkqubo kunye notyalo-mali, ngakumbi kwimeko yokutshintsha kwemozulu yehlabathi, anikele ingqalelo ekuphuculeni ukusebenza kakuhle kwemveliso yamafama amancinci, azame ukuqinisa amandla okuvelisa ukutya okubanzi kunye nokuphucula ngokupheleleyo. amandla abo okhuseleko lokutya.


Ixesha lokuposa: Dec-16-2021